In the following generation, Rav Papa quotes this statement (BT Niddah 66a) in a discussion on abortion about a woman who labored for two days and then aborted. She was considered a woman who gave birth as a zava. Rava disagreed with Rav Papa and in another discussion (BT Berakhot 31a, which parallels the Rav Huna section mentioned above) did not accept the universality of the ple of established halakhah about which there is no dispute.
These sages, Rav Huna, Abaye, R. Zera, and Rav Papa, all lived within two generations of one another, indicating that this decree was universally accepted very quickly. There may also have been concern for fertility because some sages thought that conception is most likely near the time of one’s period and another opinion set the time for conception near immersion (BT Niddah 31b). It is likely that the issue of fertility was settled quickly by observation of its enhancement in the majority of the population. The time for immersion was very close to ovulation if we assume a twenty-eight- or thirty-day cycle and a period lasting about five days. The seven clean days would then set the time for immersion at the night after the twelfth day’s sunset. Unfortunately for those women with consistently shorter cycles, such an extension of sexual abstention doomed them to halakhic infertility (‘akarut hilkhatit). This extended period of abstention coincidentally allowed a woman to practice a form of rhythm birth control by delaying her immersion in the mikveh for just a few days. In order to explain how the reduction of sexual contact became normative, we must assume that this was an era of asceticism, possibly related to mourning for the continued state of exile and the destruction of the Temple and the subsequent loss of means of atonement for sin. It is also likely that power struggles between the priestly class and the rabbinic sages became focused on purity issues. By “raising” the purity observance of non-priests, the rabbinic sages usurped the elite priestly status, centering the Crown of Torah-Learning (Keter Torah), the Crown of Governance (Keter Malkhut), and the modified Priestly Crown (Keter Kehuna) in the House of the Patriarchs and their adherents, the haverim.
No history is given when it comes down to of the decrees. Next motivation for it major move might have been a deterioration in the way of life of bloodstream examining. Considering Mishnah Niddah 2:6, there were five shade away from impure blood. There are 11 days where that bloodstream might possibly be noticed ziva. Blood marks needed to be out of confirmed size. The colour out of bloodstream changed because it dried while the color and texture of your own fabric swayed how it checked. Hence the sages to help you which like bloodstream samples was put getting examination of the newest bloodstream must be positives. Numerous supplies imply that sages averted checking blood or perhaps certain kinds of blood; some don’t coached younger sages courtesy an enthusiastic apprenticeship (BT Niddah 20b). Should your number of skilled sages decreased, most other modes out of referring to question had to be operating. The essential effective function would be to take away the distinctions ranging from the newest categories. Of the seriousness of your own transgression, people development one to tried to maintain this system would need to be in the brand new advice you to eliminated the fresh new smaller stringent classification and you will stretched the greater strict you to definitely. The brand new elizabeth of girl from Israel suited which need.
A basic difference of opinion exists between the famous rabbinic sages Shammai and Hillel with reference to the beginning of a woman’s menstrual impurity. In Mishnah Niddah 1:1 (Mishnah Eduyyot 1:1), Shammai claims that a woman becomes ritually impure only when she sees blood. Hillel, contrary to the normally lenient legal position of his school, claims that when the woman sees menstrual blood she is ritually impure retroactively to the time when she last made an internal examination in which she ascertained that she was not menstruating. The sages rejected his stringent view and compromised between Hillel and Shammai. They limited retroactive impurity to twenty-four hours, but it could be shortened if the woman did an internal examination within the twenty-four hour period. The sages therefore decided that if the woman had a regular, established period, both the man and woman examine themselves after coitus. It was unlikely that the set period would deviate but if there was blood they would have to bring a sin offering. Women who did not have a set period continued to be obligated to examine themselves before coitus. Women dealing with ritually pure objects and foodstuffs (including hullin consumed in purity), such as tithes (which were in effect long after the destruction of the Temple), were obligated to examine themselves internally both in the morning to make certain that the objects and foodstuffs touched in the previous evening and night were indeed pure, and again in the evening to ensure the purity of what she touched during the day. Women of the priestly families were allowed to eat certain sacrifices and gifts to the priests, but in addition to the times mentioned above, they had to examine themselves internally before and after eating tithes and sacrifices in order that they ate in purity and that the leftovers could be consumed by others.